9 Feb 2012 Units commonly used for abundance estimates are “items per m2” for derived from the breakdown of larger plastic products (secondary sources).4,8,9 . different sampling methods, the highest amounts of macrolitter.
These early studies assumed that plastic abundance in seabird stomachs reflected local or regional pollution levels, which could then be used Fulmars used in long-term studies within the North Sea are birds found dead on beaches. plastic items were visually identified under binocular microscope and categorized as either industrial or user plastics. plastic particle concentration is computed as total number of pieces collected, divided by the tow area (tow length*1-m net width),
While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m<sup>-2</sup>
Many such additives are used in substantial quantities and in a wide range of products (Meeker et al. . Most studies assess the abundance of all types of anthropogenic debris including data on plastics and/or plastic items as a category.
fragments, 2,333,871,120.0 (2.3 billion), total weight of plastic objects and fragments 30, 438.52 kg (30 metric tons). . the quantity of plastic (count or mass) by the product of the The highest abundance from any sampling device used.
Main sources and movement pathways for plastic in the marine environment. 6. 4. Proportion of post-consumer waste in EU-27, Norway and. Switzerland according to function, 2008. 7. 5. Composition and numbers of marine litter items found
Thick plastic items persist for decades, even when subject to direct sunlight, and survive even longer when shielded from UV .. Counts of litter at sea can be used to provide an index of abundance (number of items per unit distance) or an
A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. P. G., Moore C. J., van Franeker J. A., Moloney C. L. 2009Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment.
Natural polymers such as rubber and silk exist in abundance, but nature's “plastics” have not been implicated in environmental pollution, Moreover, many lightweight, single-use plastic products and packaging materials, which account for approximately 50 percent of all The first oceanographic study to examine the amount of near-surface plastic debris in the world's oceans was published in 2014.
originating on land and related to the design, the use and the disposal of plastic items, particularly single-use stewardship to help reduce the quantity of plastic waste generated by society and the associated most abundant types of litter found in the marine environment (OceanConservancy 2016; Nelms et al. 2017).
10 Apr 2015 plastics are used to make countless everyday products — from bottles to auto bumpers, from homework folders to flowerpots. abundant, indeed: Evidence of plastic pollution abounds across the world's oceans. The amount of plastic in the oceans should be on the order of millions of tons, he explains.
plastics are the most abundant material collected in studies of marine debris floating on the ocean surface (e.g., Law et al. . large amounts of material of all kinds into the marine environment, or when gear or cargo is lost during maritime use
Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, . Waste composition data are useful to identify the relative quantity and types of plastic. .. The abundance of small items of plastic is further increased by the use of plastic particles as scrubbers and abrasives in commercial cleaning applications
30 Jun 2014 However, the abundance and the distribution of plastic debris in the open ocean are still unknown, despite evidence of affects on organisms ranging from small . Likewise, a stable input and fragmentation of large plastic objects should result in a steady volume–size distribution. .. We used a standard shape for the plastic fragments having the three principal axes proportional to l. Thus
However, durable and very slow to degrade, plastic materials that are used in the production of so many products all, However, Midways' isolation has not spared it from the great plastic tide either, receiving massive quantities of plastic . Over the past 60 years, organic materials, once the most common form of debris, have yielded to synthetic elements as the most abundant material in solid waste.
This paper summarizes monitoring protocols used to measure changes in plastic debris with a focus on the marine environment .. Counts of litter at sea can be used to provide an index of abundance (number of items per unit distance) or an
Title: The distribution, abundance and characteristics of plastic debris along the number of items (1000) were collected near the small village of Comporta. . plastic use is an anthropogenic factor that affects the ecosystem development.
15 Dec 2017 The litter found in the world's oceans is highly diverse but plastics are by far the most abundant material recorded Video material used in the study with information on sampling year, number of cruise and video transects
15 Jul 2017 plastic used in common consumer items can be buoyant or prone to sinking (Morét-Ferguson et al., 2010), but the .. Abundance of plastic and amounts of retrieved plastic fragments, macroplastic, paint flakes and fibers, and
wording is used, this is placed in quotation marks, and the page number is included in the citation. 3. This report is my own . The abundance, distribution and accumulation of macro plastic debris (articles >. 10 mm) in Table Bay, Cape Town,